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پوٹھواری, پہاڑی
Poṭhwārī, Pahāṛī
Native toPakistan
RegionPothohar region of Punjab, Azad Kashmir and western parts of Jammu and Kashmir, other parts of India including Punjab and Haryana (by partition refugees and descendants)
Native speakers
several million[a]
Language codes
ISO 639-3phr
Glottologpaha1251  Pahari Potwari

Pahari-Pothwari is an Indo-Aryan language variety of Lahnda group,[b] spoken on the Pothohar Plateau in the far north of Punjab, Pakistan, as well as in most of Pakistan-administered Azad Kashmir and in western areas of Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir, is known by a variety of names, the most common of which are Pahari (English: /pəˈhɑːri/;[1] an ambiguous name also applied to other unrelated languages of India), and Pothwari (or Pothohari).

The language is transitional between Hindko and Standard Punjabi[2] and is mutually intelligible with both.[3] There have been efforts at cultivation as a literary language,[4] although a local standard has not been established yet.[5] The Shahmukhi script is used to write the language, such as in the works of Punjabi poet Mian Muhammad Bakhsh.

Grierson in his early 20th-century Linguistic Survey of India assigned it to a so-called "Northern cluster" of Lahnda (Western Punjabi), but this classification, as well as the validity of the Lahnda grouping in this case, have been called into question.[6] In a sense both Pothwari, as well as other Lahnda varieties, and Standard Punjabi are "dialects" of a "Greater Punjabi" macrolanguage.[7]

Due to effects of dominant languages in Pakistani media like Urdu, Standard Punjabi and English and religious impact of Arabic and Persian, Pahari-Pothwari like other regional varieties of Pakistan are continuously expanding its vocabulary base with loan words.[8]

Geographic distribution and dialects

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Azad Kashmir and surrounding areas with some of the locations mentioned in this section. Places where Pahari–Pothwari is spoken are in dark red.

There are at least three major dialects: Pothwari, Mirpuri and Pahari.[c] The Pothwari spoken in Gujar Khan is regarded as the most prestigious dialect of Pothwari spoken in Pakistan.[9]

The dialects are mutually intelligible,[10] but the difference between the northernmost and the southernmost dialects (from Muzaffarabad and Mirpur respectively) is enough to cause difficulties in understanding.[11]

Pothohar Plateau

Pothwari (پوٹھواری), also spelt Potwari, Potohari and Pothohari (پوٹھوہاری),[12] is spoken in the Pothohar Plateau of northern Punjab,[13] an area administratively within Rawalpindi division.[14] Pothwari is its most common name, and some call it Pindiwal Punjabi to differentiate it from the Punjabi spoken elsewhere in Punjab.[15]

Pothwar scenery with hill backdrop
Geographic distribution of various Pahari languages and dialects across the Lower Himalayas. (Blue - Pahari-Pothwari, Purple - Hindko)

Pothwari extends southwards up to the Salt Range, with the city of Jhelum marking the border with Majha Punjabi. To the north, Pothwari transitions into the Pahari-speaking area, with Bharakao, near Islamabad, generally regarded as the point where Pothwari ends and Pahari begins.[16] Pothwari has been represented by their own people and their own community as they re-presented with their own ethnic group.[5][d], 85.1% of households had Pothwari as mother tongue.

Among the dialects of the Pahari-Pothwari dialect cluster, the variety spoken on the Pothohar is the only native language in the Rawalpindi division and it is ethno-linguistic group.[citation needed] This Pothwari is also regarded as the most prestigious dialect spoken in the region.[citation needed]


East of the Pothwari areas, across the Jhelum River into Mirpur District in Azad Kashmir, the language is more similar to Pothwari than to the Pahari spoken in the rest of Azad Kashmir.[17] Locally it is known by a variety of names:[e] Pahari, Mirpur Pahari, Mirpuri,[f] and Pothwari,[18] while some of its speakers call it Punjabi.[19] Mirpuris possess a strong sense of Kashmiri identity that overrides linguistic identification with closely related groups outside Azad Kashmir, such as the Pothwari Punjabis.[20] The Mirpur region has been the source of the greater part of Pakistani immigration to the UK, a process that started when thousands were displaced by the construction of the Mangla Dam in the 1960s and emigrated to fill labour shortages in England.[21] The British Mirpuri diaspora now numbers several hundred thousand, and Pahari has been argued to be the second most common mother tongue in the UK, yet the language is little known in the wider society there and its status has remained surrounded by confusion.[22]

Kashmir, Murree and the Galyat

Pahari (پہاڑی) is spoken to the north of Pothwari. The central cluster of Pahari dialects is found around Murree.[23] This area is in the Galyat: the hill country of Murree Tehsil in the northeast of Rawalpindi District (just north of the capital Islamabad) and the adjoining areas in southeastern Abbottabad District.[24] One name occasionally found in the literature for this language is Dhundi-Kairali (Ḍhūṇḍī-Kaiṛālī), a term first used by Grierson[25] who based it on the names of the two major tribes of the area – the Kairal and the Dhund.[13] Its speakers call it Pahari in Murree tehsil, while in Abbottabad district it is known as either Hindko or Ḍhūṇḍī.[26] Nevertheless, Hindko – properly the language of the rest of Abbottabad District and the neighbouring areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa – is generally regarded as a different language.[27] It forms a dialect continuum with Pahari, [13] and the transition between the two is in northern Azad Kashmir and in the Galyat region. For example, on the road from Murree northwest towards the city of Abbottabad, Pahari gradually changes into Hindko between Ayubia and Nathiagali.[28]

Distribution of Pahari-Pothwari dialects with subdivisions overlayed

A closely related dialect is spoken across the Jhelum River in Azad Kashmir, north of the Mirpuri areas. Names associated in the literature with this dialect are Pahari (itself the term most commonly used by the speakers themselves), Chibhālī,[29] named after the Chibhal region[30] or the Chibh ethnic group,[14] and Poonchi (پونچھی, also spelt Punchhi). The latter name has been variously applied to either the Chibhali variety specific to the district of Poonch,[31] or to the dialect of the whole northern half of Azad Kashmir.[32] This dialect (or dialects) has been seen either as a separate dialect from the one in Murree,[25] or as belonging to the same central group of Pahari dialects.[33] The dialect of the district of Bagh, for example, has more shared vocabulary with the core dialects from Murree (86–88%) than with the varieties of either Muzaffarabad (84%) or Mirpur (78%).[34]

In Muzaffarabad the dialect shows lexical similarity[g] of 83–88% with the central group of Pahari dialects, which is high enough for the authors of the sociolinguistic survey to classify it is a central dialect itself, but low enough to warrant noting its borderline status.[35] The speakers however tend to call their language Hindko[36] and to identify more with the Hindko spoken to the west,[37] despite the lower lexical similarity (73–79%) with the core Hindko dialects of Abbottabad and Mansehra.[38] Further north into the Neelam Valley the dialect, now known locally as Parmi, becomes closer to Hindko.[39]

Pahari is also spoken further east across the Line of Control into the Pir Panjal mountains in Indian Jammu and Kashmir. The population, estimated at 1 million,[40] is found in the region between the Jhelum and Chenab rivers: most significantly in the districts of Poonch and Rajouri, to a lesser extent in neighbouring Baramulla and Kupwara,[41] and also – as a result of the influx of refugees during the Partition of 1947 – scattered throughout the rest of Jammu and Kashmir.[42] Pahari is among the regional languages listed in the sixth schedule of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir.[43] This Pahari is sometimes conflated with the Western Pahari languages spoken in the mountainous region in the south-east of Indian Jammu and Kashmir. These languages, which include Bhadarwahi and its neighbours, are often called "Pahari", although not same they are closely related to Pahari–Pothwari.[44]



Vowels of Pahari
Front Central Back
oral nasal oral nasal oral nasal
Close ĩː ũː
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Mid e ẽː ə o
Open æ æː ãː
Vowels of Pothwari
Front Central Back
oral nasal oral nasal oral nasal
Close i ĩ ĩː u ũ ũː
Mid e ɐ ɐ̃ o õ
Open ɑ ɑ̃

A long diphthong /ɑi/ can be realized as [äː].[45]


Consonants of Pahari[46]
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alv./
Velar Glottal
voiceless p t t͡ʃ k
aspirated t̪ʰ t͡ʃʰ
voiced b d d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x
voiced v z ɣ ɦ
Nasal m n ŋ
Approximant l j
Tap/Trill r ɽ
Consonants of Pothwari[45]
Labial Alveolar Retroflex Post-alv./
Stop voiceless p t ʈ k
aspirated ʈʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
breathy ɖʱ ɡʱ
Affricate voiceless t͡s
aspirated t͡sʰ
voiced d͡z
Fricative voiceless (f) s ʃ (χ) h
voiced v z (ʒ) (ʁ)
Nasal m n ɳ
Approximant l ɭ j
Tap/Trill r ɽ
  • Sounds [f, ʒ, χ, ʁ, q] are heard from Persian and Arabic loanwords.
  • /h/ is realized as voiced [ɦ] in word-initial position.
  • /n/ before a velar consonant can be heard as [ŋ].[45]

Notable Features

Future Tense

The future tense in Pothwari is formed by adding -s as opposed to the Eastern Punjabi gā.[47]

This tense is also used in other Western Punjabi dialects such as the Jatki dialects, Shahpuri, Jhangochi and Dhanni, as well as in and Hindko and Saraiki.[48]

English Pothwari Eastern Punjabi
Transliteration Shahmukhi Gurmukhi Transliteration Shahmukhi Gurmukhi
I will do Mãi karsā̃ مَیں کرساں ਮੈਂ ਕਰਸਾਂ Mãi karāngā مَیں کرانگا ਮੈਂ ਕਰਾਂਗਾ
We will do Asā̃ karsā̃ اَساں کرساں ਅਸਾਂ ਕਰਸਾਂ Asī̃ karānge اَسِیں کرانگے ਅਸੀਂ ਕਰਾਂਗੇ
You will do (s) Tū̃ karsãi تُوں کرسَیں ਤੂੰ ਕਰਸੈਂ Tū̃ karãigā تُوں کریں گا ਤੂੰ ਕਰੇਂਗਾ
You will do (p) Tusā̃ karso تُساں کرسو ਤੁਸਾਂ ਕਰਸੋ Tusī̃ karoge تُسِیں کروگے ਤੁਸੀਂ ਕਰੋਗੇ
He/She will do Ó karsi اوه کَرسی ਓਹ ਕਰਸੀ Ó karega اوه کرے گا ਓਹ ਕਰੇਗਾ
They will do Ó karsan اوہ کرسن ਓਹ ਕਰਸਨ Ó karaṇge اوه کرݨ گے ਓਹ ਕਰਣਗੇ

This type of future tense was also used by classical Punjabi poets. Punjabi poet Bulleh Shah sometimes uses a similar form of future tense in his poetry[49]

Shahmukhi: جو کُجھ کَرسین, سو کُجھ پاسیں

Transliteration: Jo kujh karsãi, so kujh paasãi

Translation: Whatsoever you do, is what you shall gain

- From one of Bulleh Shah's poems[50]

Continuous Tense

Similar to other Punjabi varieties, Pothwari uses peyā (past tense form of pēṇā) to signify the continuous tense.[51]

Present Continuous

English Pothwari
Transliteration Shahmukhi Gurmukhi
I am doing (m.) Mē̃ karnā peyā ā̃̀ میں کرنا پیا ہاں ਮੈਂ ਕਰਨਾ ਪਿਆ ਹਾਂ
We are doing (m./mixed) Asā̃ karne pa'e ā̃̀ اساں کرنے پئے ہاں ਅਸਾਂ ਕਰਨੇ ਪਏ ਹਾਂ
You are doing (sing., m.) Tū̃ karna peya aĩ̀ تُوں کرنا پیا ہیں ਤੂੰ ਕਰਨਾ ਪਿਆ ਹੈਂ
You are doing (sing., f.) Tū̃ karnī paī aĩ̀ تُوں کرنی پئی ہیں ਤੂੰ ਕਰਨੀ ਪਈ ਹੈਂ
You are doing (plural, m./mixed) Tusā̃ karne pa'e ò تُساں کرنے پئے ہو ਤੁਸਾਂ ਕਰਨੇ ਪਏ ਹੋ
He is doing Ó karna peya aì اوہ کرنا پیا ہے ਉਹ ਕਰਨਾ ਪਿਆ ਹੈ
She is doing Ó karnī paī aì اوہ کرنی پئی ہے ਉਹ ਕਰਨੀ ਪਈ ਹੈ
They are doing (m.) Ó karne pa'e ìn اوہ کرنے پئے ہِن ਉਹ ਕਰਨੇ ਪਏ ਹਿਨ
They are doing (f.) Ó karniyā̃ paiyā̃ ìn اوہ کرنیاں پئیاں ہِن ਉਹ ਕਰਨੀਆਂ ਪਈਆਂ ਹਿਨ

Past Continuous

The past continuous tense in Pothwari resembles that of Eastern Punjabi, however depending on the dialect, there may be slight variations.

English Pothohari Majhi
I was doing (m.) میں کرنا پیا ساں

ਮੈਂ ਕਰਨਾ ਪਿਆ ਸਾਂ

میں کردا پیا ساں

ਮੈਂ ਕਰਦਾ ਪਿਆ ਸਾਂ

We were doing (m./mixed) اساں کرنے پئے سیاں/ساں

ਅਸਾਂ ਕਰਨੇ ਪਏ ਸਿਆਂ/ਸਾਂ

اسِیں کردے پئے ساں

ਅਸੀਂ ਕਰਦੇ ਪਏ ਸਾਂ

You were doing (sing., m.) تُوں کرنا پیا سیں

ਤੂੰ ਕਰਨਾ ਪਿਆ ਸੈਂ

تُوں کردا پیا سیں

ਤੂੰ ਕਰਦਾ ਪਿਆ ਸੈਂ

You were doing (pl., m./mixed or sing. formal) تُساں کرنے پئے سیو/سو

ਤੁਸਾਂ ਕਰਨੇ ਪਏ ਸਿਓ/ਸੋ

تُسِیں کردے پئے سو

ਤੁਸੀਂ ਕਰਦੇ ਪਏ ਸੋ

He was doing اوہ کرنا پیا سا/سی

ਉਹ ਕਰਨਾ ਪਿਆ ਸਾ/ਸੀ

اوہ کردا پیا سی

ਉਹ ਕਰਦਾ ਪਿਆ ਸੀ

She was doing اوہ کرنی پئی سی

ਉਹ ਕਰਨੀ ਪਈ ਸੀ

اوہ کردی پئی سی

ਉਹ ਕਰਦੀ ਪਈ ਸੀ

They were doing (m./mixed) اوہ کرنے پئے سے/سن

ਉਹ ਕਰਨੇ ਪਏ ਸੇ/ਸਨ

اوہ کردے پئے سن

ਉਹ ਕਰਦੇ ਪਏ ਸਨ

They were doing (f.) اوہ کرنِیاں پئیاں سِیاں/سن

ਉਹ ਕਰਨੀਆਂ ਪਈਆਂ ਸੀਆਂ/ਸਨ

اوہ کردِیاں پئیاں سن

ਉਹ ਕਰਦੀਆਂ ਪਈਆਂ ਸਨ

The place of "peyā" may sometimes be switched with respect to the verb.

"Tusā̃ báhū̃ changā kamm pa'e karne ò", meaning "You (plural/sing. formal) are doing a very good thing"

"Mē̃ vī tā̃ éhe gall karnā sā̃ peyā", meaning "I was also saying the same thing"

"Mē̃ vī tā̃ ehe gall peyā karnā ā̃̀", meaning "I am also saying the same thing"

Tribal groupings

Pahari-Pothwari speakers belong to the same tribes found in Punjab. While the names of the tribes remain the same, the Punjabi word for tribe Birādrī/Barādarī (برادری) becomes Bilādrī/Balādarī (بل ادری) in Pahari-Pothwari.

Numbering system

Pahari-Pothwari follows the numbering traditions of Standard Punjabi. A point of departure from Eastern Punjabi dialects occurs in the use of Trai (ترَے) instead of Tinn (تِنّ) for the number 3. Western Punjabi and Doabi also tend to use trai over tinn.[52]

Similarly, Pothwari and other Western Punjabi dialects use "Yārā̃" (یاراں) for "Gyarā̃" (گیاراں), "Trei" (ترئی) for "Tei" (تئی) "Panji" (پنجِی) for "Pachchi" (پچّی) and "Trih" (ترِیہہ) for "Tih" (تِیہہ), for the numbers 11, 23, 25, and 30.

English Pothwari and Punjabi
Numbers Numerals Transliteration Shahmukhi Numerals
One 1 ikk اِکّ ۱
Two 2 do دو ۲
Three 3 trai ترَے ۳
Four 4 chār چار ۴
Five 5 panj پَنج ۵
Six 6 che چھے ۶
Seven 7 satt سَتّ ۷
Eight 8 aṭṭh اَٹّھ ۸
Nine 9 nau نَو ۹
Ten 10 das دَس ۱۰


The ordinal numbers are largely the same. The only difference occurs in the words for Second and Third. Second is Doowa (دووا) in Pothwari, whilst it is Dooja (دوجا) in Punjabi. Likewise Third is Treeya (تریا) in Pothwari whilst it is Teeja (تیجا) in Punjabi. Western Punjabi in general tends to follow this trend.

English Pothwari Standard Punjabi Jatki
Ordinals Shahmukhi Transliteration Shahmukhi Transliteration Shahmukhi Transliteration
First پہلا Pehla پہلا Pehla پہلا Pehla
Second دووا Dūwā دوجا Dūjjā دووا / دُوجا Dūwā / Dūjjā
Third تریا Triyā تیجا Tījjā ترِجیا Trījjā
Fourth چوتھا Chottha چوتھا Chottha چوتھا Chottha

Possessive pronouns

The possessive pronouns in Pothwari differ from that of Standard Punjabi and other Lahnda dialects.

English Pothwari Jatki Hindko
Jhangvi/Shahpuri Dhanni
Shahmukhi Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Gurmukhi
Mine مہاڑا ਮਹਾੜਾ میرا ਮੇਰਾ مَینڈھا ਮੈਂਢਾ مڑھا ਮੜ੍ਹਾ
Yours (sing.) تَہاڑا ਤਹਾੜਾ تیرا ਤੇਰਾ تَینڈھا ਤੈਂਢਾ تُڑھا ਤੁੜ੍ਹਾ
Yours (plural.) تُساں نا ਤੁਸਾਂ ਨਾ تُہاڈا ਤੁਹਾਡਾ تُساڈا / تُساں دا ਤੁਸਾਡਾ / ਤੁਸਾਂ ਦਾ تُساں دا ਤੁਸਾਂ ਦਾ
Ours اساں نا / ساہڑا ਅਸਾਂ ਨਾ / ਸਾਹੜਾ ساڈا ਸਾਡਾ اساڈا / اساں دا ਅਸਾਡਾ / ਅਸਾਂ ਦਾ اساں دا ਅਸਾਂ ਦਾ

Object marker

The object marker in Pothwari is (ਕੀ /کی) as opposed to nū̃ (ਨੂੰ / نوں) in Standard Punjabi.

For example:

The phrase: lokkā̃ nū̃ (ਲੋਕਾਂ ਨੂੰ / لوکاں نوں), meaning "to the people" in Standard Punjabi, would become lokkā̃ (ਲੋਕਾਂ ਕੀ / لوکاں کی) in Pothwari.

Hence, the personal pronouns would be as follows:

English Pothohari Standard Punjabi
Shahmukhi Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Gurmukhi
To me میکی ਮਿਕੀ مَینُوں ਮੈਨੂੰ
To you (sing.) تُکی ਤੁਕੀ تَینُوں ਤੈਨੂੰ
To you (plural.) تُساں کی ਤੁਸਾਂ ਕੀ تُہانُوں ਤੁਹਾਨੂੰ
To us اساں کی ਅਸਾਂ ਕੀ سانُوں ਸਾਨੂੰ
To him/her اُس کی ਉਸ ਕੀ اوہنُوں ਓਹਨੂੰ

Genitive marker

The genitive marker in Pothwari is represented through the use of (ਨਾ / نا) as opposed to (ਦਾ / دا).[53]

For example:

The phrase: lokkā̃ (ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦਾ / لوکاں دا), meaning "people's" or "of the people" in Pothwari, would become lokkā̃ (ਲੋਕਾਂ ਨਾ / لوکاں نا).

This also affects some of the possessive pronouns as described above.

It should also be noted that in Pothwari, the present form of verb does not end with the standard sound either, and is replaced with nā.

For example:

Miki eh nahi si chāhinā (میکی ایہہ نہیں سی چاہی نا), meaning "This is not what I wanted"

Oh kay pyā ākhnā ae? (اوہ کے پیا آکھنا اے؟), meaning "What is he saying?"

This also affects the common Punjabi passive tense:

Isrā̃ nahi ākhee nā (اِسراں نہیں آکھی نا), instead of "ākhee dā", meaning "This is now how it should be said"

Oblique case of nouns

Pothwari has unique forms for nouns in oblique cases. This is not observed in Standard Punjabi, but is seen in Hindko.[54]

English Pothwari Standard Punjabi
Shahmukhi Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Gurmukhi
Housework گھرے نا کمّ ਘਰੇ ਨਾ ਕੰਮ کھر دا کمّ ਘਰ ਦਾ ਕੰਮ
Dinner راتی نی روٹی ਰਾਤੀ ਨੀ ਰੋਟੀ رات دی روٹی ਰਾਤ ਦੀ ਰੋਟੀ
In a young age نِکّی عُمرے وِچّ ਨਿੱਕੀ ਉਮਰੀ ਵਿੱਚ نِکّی عُمر وِچّ ਨਿੱਕੀ ਉਮਰ ਵਿੱਚ
On my heart مہاڑے دِلّے اپّر ਮਹਾੜੇ ਦਿਲੇ ਅੱਪਰ میرے دِل تے ਮੇਰੇ ਦਿਲ ਤੇ
With care دھیانے نال ਧਿਆਨੇ ਨਾਲ دھیان نال ਧਿਆਨ ਨਾਲ
Patiently ارماے نال ਅਰਾਮੇ ਨਾਲ ارام نال ਅਰਾਮ ਨਾਲ
To my sister بھینُو کی ਭੈਣੂ ਕੀ بھین نُوں ਭੈਣ ਨੂੰ
For my brother بھراووُ آسطے ਭਰਾਊ ਆਸਤੇ بھرا آسطے ਭਰਾ ਆਸਤੇ
Important detail کمّے نی گلّ ਕੰਮੇ ਨੀ ਗੱਲ کمّ دی گلّ ਕੰਮ ਦੀ ਗੱਲ
There's no accounting for taste شَونقے نا کوئی مُل نہیں ہونا ਸ਼ੌਂਕੇ ਨਾ ਕੋਈ ਮੁੱਲ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੋਣਾ شَونق دا کوئی مُل نہیں ہوندا ਸ਼ੌਂਕ ਦਾ ਕੋਈ ਮੁੱਲ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੁੰਦਾ
Understand the point گلّے کی سمجھ ਗੱਲੇ ਕੀ ਸਮਝ گلّ نُوں سمجھ ਗੱਲ ਨੂੰ ਸਮਝ

Adding "i" to root form of verb

A peculiar feature of Pothwari is to end the basic root form of verbs with an "i" sound.[55]

English Pothwari Standard Punjabi
Shahmukhi Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Gurmukhi
It happened ہوئی گیا ਹੋਈ ਗਿਆ ہو گیا ਹੋ ਗਿਆ
It may be possible ہوئی سکنا اے ਹੋਈ ਸਕਣਾ ਐ ہو سکدا اے ਹੋ ਸਕਦਾ ਐ
Together رلی مِلی تے ਰਲੀ ਮਿਲੀ ਤੇ رل مِل کے ਰਲ ਮਿਲ ਕੇ
Finish it مُکائی چھوڑ ਮੁਕਾਈ ਛੋੜ مُکا چھڈّ/چھوڑ ਮੁਕਾ ਛੋੜ/ਛੱਡ
Look تکّی گھِنو ਤੱਕੀ ਘਿਨੋ تکّ لوو ਤੱਕ ਲਵੋ
Come back after having lunch روٹی کھائی تے مُڑی اچھِیں ਰੋਟੀ ਖਾਈ ਤੇ ਮੁੜੀ ਅਛੀਂ روٹی کھا کے مُڑ آوِیں ਰੋਟੀ ਖਾ ਕੇ ਮੁੜ ਆਵੀਂ
Eat it کھائی گھِن ਖਾਈ ਘਿਨ کھا لَے ਖਾ ਲੈ
Sit quietly for once کدے ٹِکی تے بہی وی جایا کر ਕਦੇ ਟਿੱਕੀ ਤੇ ਬਹੀ ਵੀ ਜਾਇਆ ਕਰ کدے ٹِک کے بہہ وی جایا کر ਕਦੇ ਟਿੱਕ ਕੇ ਬਹਿ ਵੀ ਜਾਇਆ ਕਰ


Words for "Coming" and "Going"

The Pothwari word for "coming" is acchṇā, whereas for "going" gacchṇā, julṇā and jāṇā are used.[55]

English Pothwari Jatki Standard Punjabi
Shahmukhi Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Gurmukhi
I am coming میں اچھنا پیا آں ਮੈਂ ਅਛਣਾ ਪਿਆ ਆਂ میں آندا پیا آں ਮੈਂ ਆਂਦਾ ਪਿਆ ਆਂ میں آؤندا پیا آں ਮੈਂ ਆਉਂਦਾ ਪਿਆ ਆਂ
I am going میں گچھنا پیا آں

میں جانا پیا آں

ਮੈਂ ਗਛਣਾ/ਜਾਣਾ ਪਿਆ ਆਂ   میں ویندا/جاندا پیا آں ਮੈਂ ਵੇਂਦਾ/ਜਾਂਦਾ ਪਿਆ ਆਂ میں جاندا پیا آں ਮੈਂ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਪਿਆ ਆਂ
I am not understanding میکی سمجھ نہیں اچھنی پئی ਮਿਕੀ ਸਮਝ ਨਹੀਂ ਅਛਣੀ ਪਈ مینُوں سمجھ نہیں آندی پئی ਮੈਨੂੰ ਸਮਝ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਂਦੀ ਪਈ مینُوں سمجھ نہیں آندی پئی ਮੈਨੂੰ ਸਮਝ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਂਦੀ ਪਈ
I will leave tomorrow میں کلّ گیساں

میں کلّ جاساں

ਮੈਂ ਕੱਲ੍ਹ ਗੇਸਾਂ/ਜਾਸਾਂ میں کلّ ویساں

میں کلّ جاساں

ਮੈਂ ਕੱਲ੍ਹ ਵੇਸਾਂ

ਮੈਂ ਕੱਲ੍ਹ ਵੇਸਾਂ ਜਾਸਾਂ

میں کلّ جاواں گا ਮੈਂ ਕੱਲ੍ਹ ਜਾਵਾਂਗਾ
We are going for work اساں کمّے اپّر جُلے آں ਅਸਾਂ ਕੰਮੇ ਅੱਪਰ ਜੁਲੇ ਆਂ اسِیں کمّ تے چلے آں ਅਸੀਂ ਕੱਮ ਤੇ ਚਲੇ ਆਂ اسِیں کمّ تے چلّے آں ਅਸੀਂ ਕੱਮ ਤੇ ਚਲੇ ਆਂ
It happens ہوئی گچھنا اے

ہوئی جُلنا اے

ہوئی جانا اے

ਹੋਈ ਗਛਣਾ ਐ

ਹੋਈ ਜੁਲਣਾ ਐ

ਹੋਈ ਜਾਣਾ ਐ

ہو ویندا اے

ہو جاندا اے

ਹੋ ਵੇਂਦਾ ਐ

ਹੋ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਐ

ہو جاندا اے ਹੋ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਐ
Sit down بہی جُل

بہی گچھ

بہی جا

ਬਹੀ ਜੁਲ

ਬਹੀ ਗਛ

ਬਹੀ ਜਾ

بہہ ونج

بہہ جا

ਬਹਿ ਵੰਜ

ਬਹਿ ਜਾ

بہہ جا ਬਹਿ ਜਾ
I will take him along اُسکی وی نال گھِنی جاساں

اُسکی وی نال گھِنی جُلساں

ਉਸਕੀ ਵੀ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨੀ ਜਾਸਾਂ

ਉਸਕੀ ਵੀ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨੀ ਜੁਲਸਾਂ

اوہنُوں وی نال لے ویساں/جاساں

اوہنُوں وی نال گھِن ویساں

ਓਹਨੂੰ ਵੀ ਨਾਲ ਲੈ ਵੇਸਾਂ/ਜਾਸਾਂ

ਓਹਨੂੰ ਵੀ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨ ਵੇਸਾਂ

اوہنُوں وی نال لَے جاواں گا ਓਹਨੂੰ ਵੀ ਨਾਲ ਲੈ ਜਾਵਾਂਗਾ

The imperative for gacchṇā is both gacch and gau.

Causative verbs

Pothwari causative verbs end with -ālnā.[56]

English Pothwari Standard Punjabi Jatki
To cause to eat کھوالنا کھواؤنا / کھوانا کھواونا
To cause to drink پیالنا پیانا / پیاؤنا پِواوَنا
To cause to bathe نہوالنا نہوانا / نہواؤنا نہواوَنا
To cause to wash دھووانا دھووانا / دھوواؤنا دھوواوَنا
To cause to cry رووالنا رووانا / روواؤنا روواوَنا
To cause to sleep سوالنا سواؤنا / سوانا سواوَنا
To cause to sit بہالنا بہاؤنا / بہانا بہاوَنا
To cause to stand اُٹھالنا اُٹھاوَنا / اُٹھانا اُٹھاوَنا

Words used for "Taking" and "Bringing"

Commonly observed in the Lahnda dialects is the use of Ghinṇā (گھِننا)[57][58] and Aaṇnā (آننا)[59][60] instead of the Eastern Punjabi words Laiṇā (لَینا) and Lyāṇā (لیانا).

Notice how Ghin āo becomes Ghini achho, and Ghin ghidā becomes Ghini ghidā in accordance with Pothwari grammar and vocabulary.

English Jatki Pothohari Hindko Saraiki
Shahpuri/Jhangochi Dhanni
From tomorrow onwards, I'll also bring it for you, just cope for today. کلّ توں میں تُہانُوں وی لیا دِتّا کرساں، اجّ گُزارہ کر لوو

ਕੱਲ੍ਹ ਤੋਂ ਮੈਂ ਤੁਹਾਨੂੰ ਵੀ ਲਿਆ ਦਿੱਤਾ ਕਰਸਾਂ, ਅੱਜ ਗੁਜ਼ਾਰਾ ਕਰ ਲਵੋ

کلّ توں میں تُسانُوں وی آݨ دِتّا کریساں، اجّ گُزارہ کر گھِنو

ਕੱਲ੍ਹ ਤੋਂ ਮੈਂ ਤੁਸਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਵੀ ਆਣ ਦਿੱਤਾ ਕਰੇਸਾਂ, ਅੱਜ ਗੁਜ਼ਾਰਾ ਕਰ ਘਿਨੋ

کلّ توں میں تُساں کی وی آݨی دیا کرساں، اجّ گُزارہ کری گھِنو

ਕੱਲ੍ਹ ਤੋਂ ਮੈਂ ਤੁਸਾਂ ਕੀ ਵੀ ਆਣੀ ਦਿਆ ਕਰਸਾਂ, ਅੱਜ ਗੁਜ਼ਾਰਾ ਕਰੀ ਘਿਨੋ

کلّ توں میں تُساں آں وی آݨ دیا کرساں، اجّ گُزارہ کر گھِنو

ਕੱਲ੍ਹ ਤੋਂ ਮੈਂ ਤੁਸਾਂ ਆਂ ਵੀ ਆਣ ਦਿਆ ਕਰਸਾਂ, ਅੱਜ ਗੁਜ਼ਾਰਾ ਕਰ ਘਿਨੋ

کلّ توں میں تُہاکُوں وی آݨ ڈِتّا کریساں، اجّ گُزارہ کر گھِنو

ਕੱਲ੍ਹ ਤੋਂ ਮੈਂ ਤੁਹਾਕੂੰ ਵੀ ਆਣ ਡਿੱਤਾ ਕਰੇਸਾਂ, ਅੱਜ ਗੁਜ਼ਾਰਾ ਕਰ ਘਿਨੋ

Bring him along as well. اوہنُوں وی نال لَے آوو

ਓਹਨੂੰ ਵੀ ਨਾਲ ਲੈ ਆਵੋ

اوہنُوں وی نال گھِن آوو

ਓਹਨੂੰ ਵੀ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨ ਆਵੋ

اُسکی وی نال گھِنی اچھو

ਉਸਕੀ ਵੀ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨੀ ਅਛੋ

اُساں وی نال گھِن آؤ

ਉਸਾਂ ਵੀ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨ ਆਓ

اُوکُوں وی نال گھِن آوو

ਊਕੂੰ ਵੀ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨ ਆਵੋ

They took it from me as well اُنھاں میرے کولُوں وی لَے لیا

ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਮੇਰੇ ਕੋਲੂੰ ਵੀ ਲੈ ਲਿਆ

اُنھاں مینڈھے کولُوں وی گھِن گھِدا

ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਮੈਂਢੇ ਕੋਲੂੰ ਵੀ ਘਿਨ ਘਿਦਾ

اُنھاں مہاڑے کولُوں وی گھِنی گھِدا

ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਮਹਾੜੇ ਕੋਲੂੰ ਵੀ ਘਿਨੀ ਘਿਦਾ

اُنھان مڑھے کولُوں وی گھِن گھِدا

ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਮੜ੍ਹੇ ਕੋਲੂੰ ਵੀ ਘਿਨ ਘਿਦਾ

اُنھاں میڈے کولُوں وی گھِن گھِدا

ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਮੈਂਡੇ ਕੋਲੂੰ ਵੀ ਘਿਨ ਘਿਦਾ

He is bringing اوہ لیاندا پیا اے

ਓਹ ਲਿਆਂਦਾ ਪਿਆ ਐ

اوہ اݨیدا پیا اے

ਓਹ ਅਣੇਦਾ ਪਿਆ ਐ

اوہ آݨنا پیا اے

ਓਹ ਆਣਨਾ ਪਿਆ ਐ

اوہ آݨدا پیا اے

ਓਹ ਆਣਦਾ ਪਿਆ ਐ

اوہ اݨیدا پیا اے

ਓਹ ਅਣੇਦਾ ਪਿਆ ਐ

We will also have to bring them back اُنھاں نُوں واپس وی لیاوَݨا ہوسی

ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਵਾਪਿਸ ਵੀ ਲਿਆਵਣਾ ਹੋਸੀ

اُنھاں نُوں واپس وی آݨنا ہوسی

ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਵਾਪਿਸ ਵੀ ਆਣਨਾ ਹੋਸੀ

اُنھاں کی واپس وی آݨنا ہوسی

ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਕੀ ਵਾਪਿਸ ਵੀ ਆਣਨਾ ਹੋਸੀ

اُنھاں آں واپس وی آݨنا ہوسی

ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਆਂ ਵਾਪਿਸ ਵੀ ਆਣਨਾ ਹੋਸੀ

اُنھاں کُوں واپس وی آݨنا ہوسی

ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਕੂੰ ਵਾਪਿਸ ਵੀ ਆਣਨਾ ਹੋਸੀ

Eat it کھا لَے

ਖਾ ਲੈ

کھا گھِن

ਖਾ ਘਿਨ

کھائی گھِن

ਖਾਈ ਘਿਨ

کھا گھِن

ਖਾ ਘਿਨ

کھا گھِن

ਖਾ ਘਿਨ

Bring it

Brought it

چا لیاؤ

چا لیاندا

ਚਾ ਲਿਆਓ

ਚਾ ਲਿਆਂਦਾ  

چا آݨو

چا آندا

ਚਾ ਆਣੋ

ਚਾ ਆਂਦਾ

چائی آݨو

چائی آندا

ਚਾਈ ਆਣੋ

ਚਾਈ ਆਂਦਾ

چا آݨو

چا آندا

ਚਾ ਆਣੋ

ਚਾ ਆਂਦਾ

چا آݨو

چا آندا

ਚਾ ਆਣੋ

ਚਾ ਆਂਦਾ

Take it

Took it

چا لوو

چا لیا

ਚਾ ਲਵੋ

ਚਾ ਲਿਆ

چا گھِنو

چا گھِدا

ਚਾ ਘਿਨੋ

ਚਾ ਘਿਦਾ

چائی گھِنو

چائی گھِدا

ਚਾਈ ਘਿਨੋ

ਚਾਈ ਘਿਦਾ

چا گھِنو

چا گھِدا

ਚਾ ਘਿਨੋ

ਚਾ ਘਿਦਾ

چا گھِنو

چا گھِدا

ਚਾ ਘਿਨੋ

ਚਾ ਘਿਦਾ

He will take him along اوہ ایہنُوں نال لَے ویسی

اوہ ایہنُوں لے جاسی

ਉਹ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਨਾਲ ਲੈ ਵੇਸੀ/ਜਾਸੀ

ਉਹ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਨਾਲ ਲੈ ਜਾਸੀ

اوہ ایہنُوں نال گھِن ویسی

ਉਹ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨ ਵੈਸੀ

اوہ اِسکی نال گھِنی گیسی

اوہ اِسکی نال گھِنی جُلسی

اوہ اِسکی نال گھِنی جاسی

ਉਹ ਇਸਕੀ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨੀ ਗੇਸੀ

ਉਹ ਇਸਕੀ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨੀ ਜੁਲਸੀ

ਉਹ ਇਸਕੀ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨੀ ਜਾਸੀ

اوہ اِساں نال گھِن جُلسی

ਉਹ ਇਸਾਂ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨ ਜੁਲਸੀ

اوہ اِیکُوں نال گھِن ویسی

ਉਹ ਈਕੂੰ ਨਾਲ ਘਿਨ ਵੇਸੀ

Irregular past tense of verbs

Pothwari generally follows the common Punjabi irregular verbs (e.g. khādhā, peetā, nahātā, dhotā, moyā, latthā, khalotā, ḍaṭṭhā, suttā, keetā, dittā, ghidā, seetā, baddhā).

Some additional forms are observed in bantā (بنتا) for banyā and khaltā (کھلتا) for khalā.

For example:

Miki sarkay apar khaltyon addhā ghantā hoi gya sā

Menu sark tey khalyā̃/khlotyā̃ addhā ghantā ho gya si

(It had been an hour since I was waiting on the road)

Chā kadon ni banti hoi ae

Chā kadon di bani hoi ae

(The tea has been ready for quite some time)

Interrogative words

English Pothwari Jatki Standard
Why کِیاں






Where کُتھّے / کُدھّر

ਕੁੱਥੇ / ਕੁੱਧਰ

کِتھّے / کِدّے

ਕਿੱਥੇ / ਕਿੱਦੇ



Who کُن






What? کے؟


کے / کیہ

ਕੇ / ਕੀ



Pothwari vocabulary similarities with other Western Punjabi dialects

English Pothwari Jatki Hindko Saraiki
Very / Much بہُوں بہُوں بہُوں بہُوں
Go to sleep سئی گو سَیں ونج سَیں جُل سم ونج
Alright / Okay ہلا ہلا ہلا ہلا
Boy جاتک جاتک / چھوہر جندک چھُوہر
What is his name? کے ناں اُس؟ کیہ/کے ناں اُس؟ کے ناں اُس؟ کیا ناں اُس؟
Take گھِنو لَوو (جھنگوچی/شاہپُوری)

گھِنو (دھنی)

گھِنو گھِنو
Bring آنو لیاوو (جھنگوچی/شاہپُوری)

آنو (دھنی)

آنو آنو
He speaks like us اوہ اساں آر بولنا اے اوہ ساڈے آر بولیندا اے اوہ اساں آر بولدا اے اوہ ساڈے آر الیندا اے
Let's go آ جُلِیئے آ چلِیئے/جُلِیے آ جُلاں آ جُلُوں
Lift/Raise چاؤ چاوو چاؤ چاوو
Life حیاتی حیاتی حیاتی حیاتی


  1. ^ Baart (2003, p. 10) provides an estimate of 3.8 million, presumably for the population in Pakistan alone. Lothers & Lothers (2010, p. 9) estimate the Pakistani population at well over 2.5 million and the UK diaspora at over 0.5 million. The population in India is reported in Ethnologue (2017) to be about 1 million as of 2000.
  2. ^ There is no consensus among linguists or Pahari-Pothwari speakers in terms of its status as a dialect of Punjabi or a separate language entirely. For the difficulties in assigning the labels "language" and "dialect", see Shackle (1979) for Punjabi and Masica (1991, pp. 23–27) for Indo-Aryan generally.
  3. ^ According to Lothers & Lothers (2010, p. 2). Abbasi (2010, p. 104) adds as a fourth dialect the Poonchi spoken from Poonch to the Neelam Valley. Yet another classification is reportedly presented in Karnai (2007).
  4. ^ For example, according to the 1981 census report for Rawalpindi District
  5. ^ One language activist from the diaspora in Britain "[has] said that he does not give the language a single name because those who speak the language call it many different things." (Lothers & Lothers 2012, p. 3).
  6. ^ Some, at least in the British diaspora, consider this term to be a misnomer if applied to the language. (Lothers & Lothers 2012, p. 3).
  7. ^ The similarity between wordlists containing 217 items of basic vocabulary from each location. (Lothers & Lothers 2010, pp. 15–16)


  1. ^ "Pahari". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. ^ Shackle 1979, pp. 200–201.
  3. ^ Hussain, Qandeel (2020-12-31). "Punjabi (India and Pakistan) – Language Snapshot". Language Documentation and Description. 19: 144. doi:10.25894/ldd71.
  4. ^ Masica 1991, p. 440.
  5. ^ a b Shackle 1983, p. 183.
  6. ^ Shackle 1979, p. 201: Pothohari "is often so close to Panjabi that any attempt to maintain the Lahndi scheme ought probably to reckon it as 'Lahndi merging into Panjabi'."
  7. ^ Rahman, Tariq (1995-01-01). "The Siraiki Movement in Pakistan". Language Problems and Language Planning. 19 (1): 16. doi:10.1075/lplp.19.1.01rah. ISSN 0272-2690.
  8. ^ Shams, Shammim Ara (2020). "The Impact of Dominant Languages on Regional Languages: A Case Study of English, Urdu and Shina". Pakistan Social Sciences Review. 4 (III): 1092–1106. doi:10.35484/pssr.2020(4-III)79.
  9. ^ Qayyum, Salma; Qayyum, Samina; Qayyum, Najma (2020-06-30). "Urdu, Punjabi & Pothwari: Striking Similarities & Uniqueness of the Three Indo-Aryan Languages". Global Social Sciences Review. V (II): 427–438. doi:10.31703/gssr.2020(V-II).41.
  10. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, p. 2.
  11. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, p. 86. Speakers from Muzaffarabad "consider the Mirpur dialect different enough that it is difficult to understand."
  12. ^ The alternative English spellings are from Ethnologue (2017).
  13. ^ a b c Abbasi & Asif 2010, p. 201.
  14. ^ a b Grierson 1919, p. 432.
  15. ^ John, Asher (2009). "Two dialects one region : a sociolinguistic approach to dialects as identity markers". CardinalScholar 1.0.
  16. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, pp. 2–3, 19, 112.
  17. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2012, pp. 12, 26. At least in terms of lexical similarity..
  18. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, pp. 2–3, 5, 19, 100.
  19. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, p. 44.
  20. ^ Shackle 2007, p. 114.
  21. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2012, p. 1.
  22. ^ Hussain 2015, pp. 483–84.
  23. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, p. 23.
  24. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, pp. 2, 5.
  25. ^ a b Abbasi 2010, p. 104.
  26. ^ Hindko according to Lothers & Lothers (2010, pp. 5, 39) and Dhundi according to Grierson (1919, p. 495). Pahari is reported in both sources.
  27. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, pp. 40, 126–27. The speakers of Pahari in Abbottabad District regard the Hindko of the city of Abbottabad as a different language.
  28. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, pp. 2, 40.
  29. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, pp. 2, 5, 8.
  30. ^ Grierson 1919, p. 505.
  31. ^ Grierson 1919, p. 505 and corresponding map.
  32. ^ Abbasi 2010, p. 104; Abbasi & Asif 2010, pp. 201–202
  33. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, sec. 3.1. The varieties surveyed here are from Bagh and Muzaffarabad.
  34. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, p. 24. The wordlists that form the basis of this comparison are from the variety of Neela Butt.
  35. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, pp. 24–25.
  36. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, pp. 26, 80.
  37. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, pp. 108, 110.
  38. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, p. 24.
  39. ^ Lothers & Lothers 2010, p. 26; Akhtar & Rehman 2007, p. 68. The conclusion is similarly based on lexical similarity and the comparison is with the Hindko of the Kaghan Valley on one hand and with the Pahari of the Murre Hills on the other.
  40. ^ A 2000 estimate reported in Ethnologue (2017)
  41. ^ Singh 2014, p. 18; Bhat 2014, ch. 1, pp. 38, 40
  42. ^ Lists of regions and settlements are found in Bhat (2014, ch. 1, pp. 40, 43–44) and Kour (2014).
  43. ^ "The Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2020-04-29.
  44. ^ Kaul 2006, pp. 42, 256–8.
  45. ^ a b c Kogan, Anton I. (2011). Potxoxari Jazyk. Tatiana I. Oranskaya and Yulia V. Mazurova and Andrej A. Kibrik and Leonid I. Kulikov and Aleksandr Y. Rusakov (eds.), Jazyki Mira: Novye Indoarijskie Jazyki: Moskva: Academia. pp. 516–527.
  46. ^ Khan, Abdul Qadir (2013). A Preliminary Study of Pahari Language and its Sound System. pp. 1–20.
  47. ^ "Lahnda Structure". Retrieved 2023-06-03.
  48. ^ "Grammar and Dictionary of Western Punjabi". p. 50. The future tense is formed by adding to the root the letter -s with the general personal endings
  49. ^ "Uth jaag ghurarry mar nhen – Bulleh Shah". Folk Punjab. Retrieved 2023-06-03.
  50. ^ "اُٹھ جاگ گُھراڑے مار نہیں – بلھے شاہ". Folk Punjab (in Punjabi). Retrieved 2023-06-03.
  51. ^ J. Wilson (1898). Western Punjabi ( Shahpur District). p. 54. me venda pyā̃, me kamm pya karendā̃.
  52. ^ Bailey, Thomas Grahame (2013). Languages of the Northern Himalayas: Being Studies In The Grammar Of Twenty-Six Himalayan Dialects. Cambridge University Press.
  53. ^ J. Wilson. Western Punjabi ( Shahpur District). p. 1"the genitive postposition (of) is nā instead of dā...These characteristics are also found in the dialects spoken In the western tehsils of the Rawalpindi District as far north as Attack, and probably in the intervening tahsils of the Jehlam District"{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  54. ^ J. Wilson. Western Punjabi ( Shahpur District). p. 9. In the dialect of the Salt Range many nouns, and especialy monosyllables ending in a consonant, to form the absolute singular, add to the absolute form an e if masculine, and an i or u if feminine.
  55. ^ a b شیراز طاہر (2016). شیراز اُللغات.
  56. ^ "Salah-ud-Din Panjabi dictionary". Retrieved 2023-10-26. کھوالن مصدر کھواون.
  57. ^ Singh, Maya (1895). "The Panjabi dictionary". Retrieved 2023-10-21. GHINNAṈÁ ਘਿੱਨਣਾ v. a. To take
  58. ^ Grammar and dictionary of Western Panjabi, as spoken in the Shahpur district with proverbs, sayings and verses. Punjab Government Press, Lahore. 1899. p. 1. Ghinn for Le (Take).
  59. ^ A. Jukes (1900). Dictionary of the Jatki or Western Panjábi Language. p. 22. آننْڑ / Anan, v. t. To bring.
  60. ^ "Salah-ud-Din Panjabi dictionary". Retrieved 2023-10-21.


Further reading

  • Karnai, Mian Karim Ullah (2007). Pahari aor Urdu: ik taqabali jaiza (in Urdu). Islamabad: National Language Authority.
  • Nazir, Farah (2014). Light Verb Constructions in Potwari (PhD). University of Manchester.

External links